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TOPIC: Peer Reviewed Article on Ich Treatment

Peer Reviewed Article on Ich Treatment 3 years 9 months ago #48647

  • kmuda
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Not everyone has the desire for this type of reading, but for those that do.....

An assessment of the use of drug and non-drug interventions in the treatment of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876, a protozoan parasite of freshwater fish
Abstract:
Infection by the ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 causes significant economic losses in freshwater
aquaculture worldwide. Following the ban on the use of malachite green for treating food fish, there has been extensive
research aimed at identifying suitable replacements. In this paper we critically assess drug and non-drug interventions,
which have been tested for use or have been employed against this parasite and evaluate possibilities for their application in
farm systems. Current treatments include the administration of formaldehyde, sodium chloride (salt), copper sulphate and
potassium permanganate. However, purportedly more environmentally friendly drugs such as humic acid, potassium
ferrate (VI), bronopol and the peracetic acid-based products have recently been tested and represent promising alternatives.
Further investigation, is required to optimize the treatments and to establish precise protocols in order to minimize the
quantity of drug employed whilst ensuring the most efficacious performance. At the same time, there needs to be a greater
emphasis placed on the non-drug aspects of management strategies, including the use of non-chemical interventions
focusing on the removal of free-swimming stages and tomocysts of I. multifiliis from farm culture systems. Use of such
strategies provides the hope of more environmentally friendly alternatives for the control of I. multifiliis infections.

dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/10147/1...20chemo%20review.pdf

Always good stuff to be learned. :mrgreen:

I particularly enjoyed.....
MG and its derivatives (mainly leucomalachite) also display well-documented ecotoxicological effects including cytotoxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, induction of chromosomal fractures, teratogenicity and respiratory toxicity (Culp and Beland, 1996; Srivastava et al. 2004). Malachite green and its derivatives are also known to be highly persistent in the environment, bio-accumulating in the ecosystem and fish tissues (Henderson et al. 1997)

"MG" is Malachite Green.... one of the drugs used in almost all Ich medications.
120g - Tiger Oscar, Parrot Cichlid, SDs | 55g - 24 Year Old Kissing Gourami
55g - Angelfish/Bolivan Rams | 40g GBRs - 20g Apistos
65g Blackwater Planted Discus Tank
4 Cats, 2 Shelties, 1 Rat Terrier, 1 wife, 1 old lady, 1 sub-adult, 1 rug rat.
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Peer Reviewed Article on Ich Treatment 3 years 9 months ago #48657

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Interesting. I didn't know that MG was so... destructive. I always go with salt/heat first, but this makes me want to stick to it even more.
"My Country is the World, and my Religion is to do good." -Thomas Paine
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Peer Reviewed Article on Ich Treatment 3 years 9 months ago #48658

  • bassetmancichlids
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Regardless of popular opinion on some sights I have used heat and salt on all but the very worst cases with almost total success.
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Peer Reviewed Article on Ich Treatment 3 years 9 months ago #48659

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I don't provide the analogy of curing Ich with Ich Medications is akin to curing a headache with a shotgun..... for nothing.
120g - Tiger Oscar, Parrot Cichlid, SDs | 55g - 24 Year Old Kissing Gourami
55g - Angelfish/Bolivan Rams | 40g GBRs - 20g Apistos
65g Blackwater Planted Discus Tank
4 Cats, 2 Shelties, 1 Rat Terrier, 1 wife, 1 old lady, 1 sub-adult, 1 rug rat.
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Peer Reviewed Article on Ich Treatment 3 years 9 months ago #48661

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For those folks that complain that the increased temps of the Heat/Salt method reduce O2 levels in the water......
In addition, the use of formaldehyde has many reported side effects such as reducing the oxygen available in the water by 1 ppm for each 5 ppm of formaldehyde that is used (Cross, 1972; Pillay and Kutty, 2005).

Formaldehyde is the other medication (aside from malachite green) in almost all Ich Medications.
Buchmann et al. (2004) also demonstrated that O. mykiss exposed to formaldehyde at concentrations of 200–300 ppm for 1 h had a reduced mucus production and were thus more susceptible to secondary infections by water moulds and bacteria. Accordingly, when formaldehyde is applied in vivo in the form of baths, fish survival can be compromised
120g - Tiger Oscar, Parrot Cichlid, SDs | 55g - 24 Year Old Kissing Gourami
55g - Angelfish/Bolivan Rams | 40g GBRs - 20g Apistos
65g Blackwater Planted Discus Tank
4 Cats, 2 Shelties, 1 Rat Terrier, 1 wife, 1 old lady, 1 sub-adult, 1 rug rat.
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Peer Reviewed Article on Ich Treatment 3 years 9 months ago #48662

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I'll stay with careful heat and salt. :bang:
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Peer Reviewed Article on Ich Treatment 3 years 9 months ago #48663

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Also saw that the use of copper sulfate can vary depending upon your water chemistry, specifically Alkalinity.... Coppersafe is usually my fall back if I'm not getting the results I need with salt... I have used it with success but in general my pH is pretty close to neutral.
"My Country is the World, and my Religion is to do good." -Thomas Paine
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Peer Reviewed Article on Ich Treatment 3 years 9 months ago #48665

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Yep... Copper Sulfate, the other ingredient in Ich Medications.
However, long periods of exposure can lead to toxicity, gill damage and growth suppression (Cardeilhac and Whitaker, 1988; Moore, 2005; Rábago-Castro et al. 2006). Copper has a very low therapeutic index (Boyd, 2005) and its toxicity to both fish host and I. multifiliis is known to vary widely with water chemistry parameters, particularly water alkalinity and hardness (Deilhac and Whitaker, 1988; Straus, 2008; Straus and Meinelt, 2009).
120g - Tiger Oscar, Parrot Cichlid, SDs | 55g - 24 Year Old Kissing Gourami
55g - Angelfish/Bolivan Rams | 40g GBRs - 20g Apistos
65g Blackwater Planted Discus Tank
4 Cats, 2 Shelties, 1 Rat Terrier, 1 wife, 1 old lady, 1 sub-adult, 1 rug rat.
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Peer Reviewed Article on Ich Treatment 3 years 9 months ago #48668

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I wish they would be more specific as to what "long periods" are.
"My Country is the World, and my Religion is to do good." -Thomas Paine
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Peer Reviewed Article on Ich Treatment 3 years 9 months ago #48673

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~rush~ wrote:
I wish they would be more specific as to what "long periods" are.

www.researchgate.net/publication/2331935...furcatus_Fingerlings
The estimated mean 96-hour LC50 values for copper toxicity were 0.710 mg/L Cu for channel catfish and 0.686 mg/L Cu for blue catfish.

www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0044848605004011
The effects of the prophylactic use of Romet®-30 and copper sulfate on catfish growth were assessed. Healthy channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) juveniles were exposed to Romet®-30 and copper sulfate during a period of 11 weeks; Romet®-30-treated fish received a therapeutic dose in the feed, while copper sulfate-treated fish were exposed to the chemical twice a week for 1 h. Body weight and length, specific growth rate, condition index, feed intake, and feed conversion index were assessed weekly. Both Romet®-30 and copper sulfate had a significant suppressive effect on channel catfish growth (weight and length): control fish were 12% heavier and 4% larger than Romet®-30-treated fish, and 30% heavier and 10% larger than fish treated with copper sulfate. Specific growth rate (SGR, %/day) was consistently lower in treated fish; however, significant differences (P < 0.05) were only observed during the interval of 8−11 weeks. Appetite was not suppressed, and is not the mechanism behind the inhibition on growth observed, which is more likely due to a decrease in feed conversion index. The present study indicates that, at concentrations commonly used in aquaculture, prophylactic, intermittent exposure of healthy channel catfish to copper sulfate or Romet®-30 induce growth suppression and should be used with caution.

Although the authority on the subject appears to be:
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195561688500414

Which I do not have access to.
120g - Tiger Oscar, Parrot Cichlid, SDs | 55g - 24 Year Old Kissing Gourami
55g - Angelfish/Bolivan Rams | 40g GBRs - 20g Apistos
65g Blackwater Planted Discus Tank
4 Cats, 2 Shelties, 1 Rat Terrier, 1 wife, 1 old lady, 1 sub-adult, 1 rug rat.
The administrator has disabled public write access.
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